§ 143-138. North Carolina State Building Code.
(a) Preparation and Adoption. - The Building Code Council may prepare and adopt, in accordance with the provisions of this Article, a North Carolina State Building Code. Before the adoption of the Code, or any part of the Code, the Council shall hold at least one public hearing. A notice of the public hearing shall be published in the North Carolina Register at least 15 days before the date of the hearing. Notwithstanding G.S. 150B-2(8a)h., the North Carolina State Building Code as adopted by the Building Code Council is a rule within the meaning of G.S. 150B-2(8a) and shall be adopted in accordance with the procedural requirements of Article 2A of Chapter 150B of the General Statutes.
The Council shall request the Office of State Budget and Management to prepare a fiscal note for a proposed Code change that has a substantial economic impact, as defined in G.S. 150B-21.4(b1), or that increases the cost of residential housing by eighty dollars ($80.00) or more per housing unit. The change can become effective only in accordance with G.S. 143-138(d). Neither the Department of Insurance nor the Council shall be required to expend any monies to pay for the preparation of any fiscal note under this section by any person outside of the Department or Council unless the Department or Council contracts with a third-party vendor to prepare the fiscal note.
(b) Contents of the Code. - The North Carolina State Building Code, as adopted by the Building Code Council, may include reasonable and suitable classifications of buildings and structures, both as to use and occupancy; general building restrictions as to location, height, and floor areas; rules for the lighting and ventilation of buildings and structures; requirements concerning means of egress from buildings and structures; requirements concerning means of ingress in buildings and structures; rules governing construction and precautions to be taken during construction; rules as to permissible materials, loads, and stresses; rules governing chimneys, heating appliances, elevators, and other facilities connected with the buildings and structures; rules governing plumbing, heating, air conditioning for the purpose of comfort cooling by the lowering of temperature, and electrical systems; and such other reasonable rules pertaining to the construction of buildings and structures and the installation of particular facilities therein as may be found reasonably necessary for the protection of the occupants of the building or structure, its neighbors, and members of the public at large.
(b1) Fire Protection; Smoke Detectors. - The Code may regulate activities and conditions in buildings, structures, and premises that pose dangers of fire, explosion, or related hazards. Such fire prevention code provisions shall be considered the minimum standards necessary to preserve and protect public health and safety, subject to approval by the Council of more stringent provisions proposed by a municipality or county as provided in G.S. 143-138(e). These provisions may include regulations requiring the installation of either battery-operated or electrical smoke detectors in every dwelling unit used as rental property, regardless of the date of construction of the rental property. For dwelling units used as rental property constructed prior to 1975, smoke detectors shall have an Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., listing or other equivalent national testing laboratory approval, and shall be installed in accordance with either the standard of the National Fire Protection Association or the minimum protection designated in the manufacturer's instructions, which the property owner shall retain or provide as proof of compliance.
(b2) Carbon Monoxide Detectors. - The Code (i) may contain provisions requiring the installation of either battery-operated or electrical carbon monoxide detectors in every dwelling unit having a fossil-fuel burning heater, appliance, or fireplace, and in any dwelling unit having an attached garage and (ii) shall contain provisions requiring the installation of electrical carbon monoxide detectors at a lodging establishment. Violations of this subsection and rules adopted pursuant to this subsection shall be punishable in accordance with subsection (h) of this section and G.S. 143-139. In particular, the rules shall provide:
(1) For dwelling units, carbon monoxide detectors shall be those listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory that is OSHA-approved to test and certify to American National Standards Institute/Underwriters Laboratories Standards ANSI/UL2034 or ANSI/UL2075 and shall be installed in accordance with either the standard of the National Fire Protection Association or the minimum protection designated in the manufacturer's instructions, which the property owner shall retain or provide as proof of compliance. A carbon monoxide detector may be combined with smoke detectors if the combined detector does both of the following: (i) complies with ANSI/UL2034 or ANSI/UL2075 for carbon monoxide alarms and ANSI/UL217 for smoke detectors; and (ii) emits an alarm in a manner that clearly differentiates between detecting the presence of carbon monoxide and the presence of smoke.
(2) For lodging establishments, carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in every enclosed space having a fossil fuel burning heater, appliance, or fireplace and in any enclosed space, including a sleeping room, that shares a common wall, floor, or ceiling with an enclosed space having a fossil fuel burning heater, appliance, or fireplace. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be (i) listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory that is OSHA-approved to test and certify to American National Standards Institute/Underwriters Laboratories Standards ANSI/UL2034 or ANSI/UL2075, (ii) installed in accordance with either the standard of the National Fire Protection Association or the minimum protection designated in the manufacturer's instructions, which the lodging establishment shall retain or provide as proof of compliance, (iii) receive primary power from the building's wiring, where such wiring is served from a commercial source, and (iv) receive power from a battery when primary power is interrupted. A carbon monoxide detector may be combined with smoke detectors if the combined detector complies with the requirements of this subdivision for carbon monoxide alarms and ANSI/UL217 for smoke detectors. For purposes of this subsection, "lodging establishment" means any hotel, motel, tourist home, or other establishment permitted under authority of G.S. 130A-248 to provide lodging accommodations for pay to the public.
(b3) Applicability of the Code. - Except as provided by subsections (b4) and (c1) of this section, the Code may contain provisions regulating every type of building or structure, wherever it might be situated in the State.
(b4) Exclusion for Certain Farm Buildings. - Building rules do not apply to (i) farm buildings that are located outside the building-rules jurisdiction of any municipality, (ii) farm buildings that are located inside the building-rules jurisdiction of any municipality if the farm buildings are greenhouses, (iii) a primitive camp, or (iv) a primitive farm building. For the purposes of this subsection:
(1) A "farm building" shall include any structure used or associated with equine activities, including, but not limited to, the care, management, boarding, or training of horses and the instruction and training of riders. Structures that are associated with equine activities include, but are not limited to, free standing or attached sheds, barns, or other structures that are utilized to store any equipment, tools, commodities, or other items that are maintained or used in conjunction with equine activities. The specific types of equine activities, structures, and uses set forth in this subdivision are for illustrative purposes, and should not be construed to limit, in any manner, the types of activities, structures, or uses that may be considered under this subsection as exempted from building rules. A farm building that might otherwise qualify for exemption from building rules shall remain subject only to an annual safety inspection by the applicable city or county building inspection department of any grandstand, bleachers, or other spectator-seating structures in the farm building. An annual safety inspection shall include an evaluation of the overall safety of spectator-seating structures as well as ensuring the spectator-seating structure's compliance with any building codes related to the construction of spectator-seating structures in effect at the time of the construction of the spectator-seating.
(2) A "greenhouse" is a structure that has a glass or plastic roof, has one or more glass or plastic walls, has an area over ninety-five percent (95%) of which is used to grow or cultivate plants, is built in accordance with the National Greenhouse Manufacturers Association Structural Design manual, and is not used for retail sales. Additional provisions addressing distinct life safety hazards shall be approved by the local building-rules jurisdiction.
(3) A "farm building" shall include any structure used for the display and sale of produce, no more than 1,000 square feet in size, open to the public for no more than 180 days per year, and certified by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services as a Certified Roadside Farm Market.
(4) A "primitive camp" shall include any structure primarily used or associated with outdoor camping activities, including structures used for educational, instructional, or recreational purposes for campers and for management training, that are (i) not greater than 4,000 square feet in size and (ii) are not intended to be occupied for more than 24 hours consecutively. "Structures primarily used or associated with outdoor camping activities" include, but are not limited to, shelters, tree stands, outhouses, sheds, rustic cabins, campfire shelters, picnic shelters, tents, tepees or other indigenous huts, support buildings used only for administrative functions and not for activities involving campers or program participants, and any other structures that are utilized to store any equipment, tools, commodities, or other items that are maintained or used in conjunction with outdoor camping activities such as hiking, fishing, hunting, or nature appreciation, regardless of material used for construction. The specific types of primitive camping activities, structures, and uses set forth in this subdivision are for illustrative purposes and should not be construed to limit, in any manner, the types of activities, structures, or uses that are exempted from building rules.
(5) A "primitive farm building" shall include any structure used for activities, instruction, training, or reenactment of traditional or heritage farming practices. "Primitive farm buildings" include, but are not limited to, sheds, barns, outhouses, doghouses, or other structures that are utilized to store any equipment, tools, commodities, livestock, or other items supporting farm management. These specific types of farming activities, structures, and uses set forth by this subdivision are for illustrative purposes and should not be construed to limit in any manner the types of activities, structures, or uses that are exempted from building rules.
(6) A "farm building" shall not lose its status as a farm building because it is used for public or private events, including, but not limited to, weddings, receptions, meetings, demonstrations of farm activities, meals, and other events that are taking place on the farm because of its farm or rural setting.
(b5) Exclusion for Certain Minor Activities in Residential and Farm Structures. - No building permit shall be required under the Code or any local variance thereof approved under subsection (e) for any construction, installation, repair, replacement, or alteration costing five thousand dollars ($5,000) or less in any single family residence or farm building unless the work involves: the addition, repair, or replacement of load bearing structures; the addition (excluding replacement of same capacity) or change in the design of plumbing; the addition, replacement or change in the design of heating, air conditioning, or electrical wiring, devices, fixtures (excluding repair or replacement of electrical lighting devices and fixtures of the same type), appliances (excluding replacement of water heaters, provided that the energy use rate or thermal input is not greater than that of the water heater which is being replaced, and there is no change in fuel, energy source, location, capacity, or routing or sizing of venting and piping), or equipment, the use of materials not permitted by the North Carolina Uniform Residential Building Code; or the addition (excluding replacement of like grade of fire resistance) of roofing. The exclusions from building permit requirements set forth in this paragraph for electrical lighting devices and fixtures and water heaters shall apply only to work performed on a one- or two-family dwelling. In addition, exclusions for electrical lighting devices and fixtures and electric water heaters shall apply only to work performed by a person licensed under G.S. 87-43 and exclusions for water heaters, generally, to work performed by a person licensed under G.S. 87-21.
(b6) No State Agency Permit. - No building permit shall be required under such Code from any State agency for the construction of any building or structure, the total cost of which is less than twenty thousand dollars ($20,000), except public or institutional buildings.
(b7) Appendices. - For the information of users thereof, the Code shall include as appendices the following:
(1) Any rules governing boilers adopted by the Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessels Rules,
(2) Any rules relating to the safe operation of elevators adopted by the Commissioner of Labor, and
(3) Any rules relating to sanitation adopted by the Commission for Public Health which the Building Code Council believes pertinent.
The Code may include references to such other rules of special types, such as those of the Medical Care Commission and the Department of Public Instruction as may be useful to persons using the Code. No rule issued by any agency other than the Building Code Council shall be construed as a part of the Code, nor supersede that Code, it being intended that they be presented with the Code for information only.
(b8) Exclusion for Certain Utilities. - Nothing in this Article shall extend to or be construed as being applicable to the regulation of the design, construction, location, installation, or operation of (1) equipment for storing, handling, transporting, and utilizing liquefied petroleum gases for fuel purposes or anhydrous ammonia or other liquid fertilizers, except for liquefied petroleum gas from the outlet of the first stage pressure regulator to and including each liquefied petroleum gas utilization device within a building or structure covered by the Code, or (2) equipment or facilities, other than buildings, of a public utility, as defined in G.S. 62-3, a cable television company, or an electric or telephone membership corporation, including without limitation poles, towers, and other structures supporting electric, cable television, or communication lines.
(b9) Exclusion for Industrial Machinery. - Nothing in this Article shall extend to or be construed as being applicable to the regulation of the design, construction, location, installation, or operation of industrial machinery. However, if during the building code inspection process, an electrical inspector has any concerns about the electrical safety of a piece of industrial machinery, the electrical inspector may refer that concern to the Occupational Safety and Health Division in the North Carolina Department of Labor but shall not withhold the certificate of occupancy nor mandate third-party testing of the industrial machinery based solely on this concern. For the purposes of this paragraph, "industrial machinery" means equipment and machinery used in a system of operations for the explicit purpose of producing a product or acquired by a State-supported center providing testing, research, and development services to manufacturing clients. The term does not include equipment that is permanently attached to or a component part of a building and related to general building services such as ventilation, heating and cooling, plumbing, fire suppression or prevention, and general electrical transmission.
(b10) Replacement Water Heaters. - The Code may contain rules concerning minimum efficiency requirements for replacement water heaters, which shall consider reasonable availability from manufacturers to meet installation space requirements and may contain rules concerning energy efficiency that require all hot water plumbing pipes that are larger than one-fourth of an inch to be insulated.
(b11) School Seclusion Rooms. - No State, county, or local building code or regulation shall prohibit the use of special locking mechanisms for seclusion rooms in the public schools approved under G.S. 115C-391.1(e)(1)e., provided that the special locking mechanism shall be constructed so that it will engage only when a key, knob, handle, button, or other similar device is being held in position by a person, and provided further that, if the mechanism is electrically or electronically controlled, it automatically disengages when the building's fire alarm is activated. Upon release of the locking mechanism by a supervising adult, the door must be able to be opened readily.
(b12) Cisterns. - The Code may include rules pertaining to the construction or renovation of residential or commercial buildings and structures that permit the use of cisterns to provide water for flushing toilets and for outdoor irrigation. No State, county, or local building code or regulation shall prohibit the use of cisterns to provide water for flushing toilets and for outdoor irrigation. As used in this subsection, "cistern" means a storage tank that is watertight; has smooth interior surfaces and enclosed lids; is fabricated from nonreactive materials such as reinforced concrete, galvanized steel, or plastic; is designed to collect rainfall from a catchment area; may be installed indoors or outdoors; and is located underground, at ground level, or on elevated stands.
(b13) Migrant Housing. - The Council shall provide for an exemption from any requirements in the fire prevention code for installation of an automatic sprinkler system applicable to buildings meeting all of the following:
(1) Has one floor.
(2) Meets all requirements of 29 C.F.R. § 1910.142, as amended.
(3) Meets all requirements of Article 19 of Chapter 95 of the General Statutes and rules implementing that Article.
For purposes of this subsection, "migrant housing" and "migrant" shall be defined as in G.S. 95-223.
(b14) [Exclusion for Routine Maintenance. -] No building permit shall be required under the Code for routine maintenance on fuel dispensing pumps and other dispensing devices. For purposes of this subsection, "routine maintenance" includes repair or replacement of hoses, O-rings, nozzles, or emergency breakaways.
(c) Standards to Be Followed in Adopting the Code. - All regulations contained in the North Carolina State Building Code shall have a reasonable and substantial connection with the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare, and their provisions shall be construed reasonably to those ends. Requirements of the Code shall conform to good engineering practice. The Council may use as guidance, but is not required to adopt, the requirements of the International Building Code of the International Code Council, the Standard Building Code of the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., the Uniform Building Code of the International Conference of Building Officials, the National Building Code of the Building Officials and Code Administrators, Inc., the National Electric Code, the Life Safety Code, the National Fuel Gas Code, the Fire Prevention Code of the National Fire Protection Association, the Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, and the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and standards promulgated by the American National Standards Institute, Standards Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., and similar national or international agencies engaged in research concerning strength of materials, safe design, and other factors bearing upon health and safety.
(c1) Exemptions for Private Clubs and Religious Organizations. - The North Carolina State Building Code and the standards for the installation and maintenance of limited-use or limited-access hydraulic elevators under this Article shall not apply to private clubs or establishments exempted from coverage under Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000a, et seq., or to religious organizations or entities controlled by religious organizations, including places of worship. A nonreligious organization or entity that leases space from a religious organization or entity is not exempt under this subsection.
(d) Amendments of the Code. - The Building Code Council may periodically revise and amend the North Carolina State Building Code, either on its own motion or upon application from any citizen, State agency, or political subdivision of the State. In addition to the periodic revisions or amendments made by the Council, the Council shall revise the North Carolina State Building Code: Residential Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings, including provisions applicable to One- and Two-Family Dwellings from the NC Energy Code, NC Electrical Code, NC Fuel Gas Code, NC Plumbing Code, and NC Mechanical Code only every six years, to become effective the first day of January of the following year, with at least six months between adoption and effective date. The first six-year revision under this subsection shall be adopted to become effective January 1, 2019, and every six years thereafter. In adopting any amendment, the Council shall comply with the same procedural requirements and the same standards set forth above for adoption of the Code. The Council, through the Department of Insurance, shall publish in the North Carolina Register and shall post on the Council's Web site all appeal decisions made by the Council and all formal opinions at least semiannually. The Council, through the Department of Insurance, shall also publish at least semiannually in the North Carolina Register a statement providing the accurate Web site address and information on how to find additional commentary and interpretation of the Code.
(e) Effect upon Local Codes. - Except as otherwise provided in this section, the North Carolina State Building Code shall apply throughout the State, from the time of its adoption. Approved rules shall become effective in accordance with G.S. 150B-21.3. However, any political subdivision of the State may adopt a fire prevention code and floodplain management regulations within its jurisdiction. The territorial jurisdiction of any municipality or county for this purpose, unless otherwise specified by the General Assembly, shall be as follows: Municipal jurisdiction shall include all areas within the corporate limits of the municipality and extraterritorial jurisdiction areas established as provided in G.S. 160A-360 or a local act; county jurisdiction shall include all other areas of the county. No such code or regulations, other than floodplain management regulations and those permitted by G.S. 160A-436, shall be effective until they have been officially approved by the Building Code Council as providing adequate minimum standards to preserve and protect health and safety, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) above. Local floodplain regulations may regulate all types and uses of buildings or structures located in flood hazard areas identified by local, State, and federal agencies, and include provisions governing substantial improvements, substantial damage, cumulative substantial improvements, lowest floor elevation, protection of mechanical and electrical systems, foundation construction, anchorage, acceptable flood resistant materials, and other measures the political subdivision deems necessary considering the characteristics of its flood hazards and vulnerability. In the absence of approval by the Building Code Council, or in the event that approval is withdrawn, local fire prevention codes and regulations shall have no force and effect. Provided any local regulations approved by the local governing body which are found by the Council to be more stringent than the adopted statewide fire prevention code and which are found to regulate only activities and conditions in buildings, structures, and premises that pose dangers of fire, explosion or related hazards, and are not matters in conflict with the State Building Code, shall be approved. Local governments may enforce the fire prevention code of the State Building Code using civil remedies authorized under G.S. 143-139, 153A-123, and 160A-175. If the Commissioner of Insurance or other State official with responsibility for enforcement of the Code institutes a civil action pursuant to G.S. 143-139, a local government may not institute a civil action under G.S. 143-139, 153A-123, or 160A-175 based upon the same violation. Appeals from the assessment or imposition of such civil remedies shall be as provided in G.S. 160A-434.
A local government may not adopt any ordinance in conflict with the exemption provided by subsection (c1) of this section. No local ordinance or regulation shall be construed to limit the exemption provided by subsection (c1) of this section.
(f) Repealed by Session Laws 1989, c. 681, s. 3.
(g) Publication and Distribution of Code. - The Building Code Council shall cause to be printed, after adoption by the Council, the North Carolina State Building Code and each amendment thereto. It shall, at the State's expense, distribute copies of the Code and each amendment to State and local governmental officials, departments, agencies, and educational institutions, as is set out in the table below. (Those marked by an asterisk will receive copies only on written request to the Council.)
OFFICIAL OR AGENCY NUMBER OF COPIES
State Departments and Officials
Lieutenant Governor.............................................................................................. 1
Secretary of State.................................................................................................. 1
Superintendent of Public Instruction....................................................................... 1
Attorney General (Library).................................................................................... 1
Commissioner of Agriculture.................................................................................. 1
Commissioner of Labor......................................................................................... 1
Commissioner of Insurance.................................................................................... 1
Department of Environment and Natural Resources................................................ 1
Department of Health and Human Services............................................................ 1
Division of Juvenile Justice of the Department of Public Safety................................ 1
Board of Transportation........................................................................................ 1
Utilities Commission.............................................................................................. 1
Department of Administration................................................................................ 1
Clerk of the Supreme Court................................................................................... 1
Clerk of the Court of Appeals................................................................................ 1
Department of Cultural Resources [State Library].................................................. 1
Supreme Court Library.......................................................................................... 1
Legislative Library................................................................................................. 1
Office of Administrative Hearings........................................................................... 1
Rules Review Commission..................................................................................... 1
All state-supported colleges and universities
in the State of North Carolina......................................................................... * 1 each
Clerks of the Superior Courts................................................................................ 1 each
Chief Building Inspector of each incorporated
municipality or county..................................................................................... 1
In addition, the Building Code Council shall make additional copies available at such price as it shall deem reasonable to members of the general public. The proceeds from sales of the Building Code shall be credited to the Insurance Regulatory Fund under G.S. 58-6-25.
(h) Violations. - Any person who shall be adjudged to have violated this Article or the North Carolina State Building Code, except for violations of occupancy limits established by either, shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor and shall upon conviction only be liable to a fine, not to exceed fifty dollars ($50.00), for each offense. Each 30 days that such violation continues shall constitute a separate and distinct offense. Violation of occupancy limits established pursuant to the North Carolina State Building Code shall be a Class 3 misdemeanor. Any violation incurred more than one year after another conviction for violation of the occupancy limits shall be treated as a first offense for purposes of establishing and imposing penalties.
(i) Section 1008 of Chapter X of Volume 1 of the North Carolina State Building Code, Title "Special Safety to Life Requirements Applicable to Existing High-Rise Buildings" as adopted by the North Carolina State Building Code Council on March 9, 1976, as ratified and adopted as follows:
SECTION 1008-SPECIAL SAFETY TO LIFE REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO EXISTING HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS
1008 - GENERAL.
(a) Applicability. - Within a reasonable time, as fixed by "written order" of the building official, and except as otherwise provided in subsection (j) of this section every building the [then] existing, that qualifies for classification under Table 1008.1 shall be considered to be a high-rise building and shall be provided with safety to life facilities as hereinafter specified. All other buildings shall be considered as low-rise. NOTE: The requirements of Section 1008 shall be considered as minimum requirements to provide for reasonable safety to life requirements for existing buildings and where possible, the owner and designer should consider the provisions of Section 506 applicable to new high-rise buildings.
(b) Notification of Building Owner. - The Department of Insurance will send copies of amendments adopted to all local building officials with the suggestion that all local building officials transmit to applicable building owners in their jurisdiction copies of adopted amendments, within six months from the date the amendments are adopted, with the request that each building owner respond to the local building official how he plans to comply with these requirements within a reasonable time.
NOTE: Suggested reasonable time and procedures for owners to respond to the building official's request is as follows:
(1) The building owner shall, upon receipt of written request from the building official on compliance procedures within a reasonable time, submit an overall plan required by 1008(c) below within one year and within the time period specified in the approved overall plan, but not to exceed five years after the overall plan is approved, accomplish compliance with this section, as evidenced by completion of the work in accordance with approved working drawings and specifications and by issuance of a new Certificate of Compliance by the building official covering the work. Upon approval of building owner's overall plan, the building official shall issue a "written order", as per 1008(a) above, to comply with Section 1008 in accordance with the approved overall plan.
(2) The building official may permit time extensions beyond five years to accomplish compliance in accordance with the overall plan when the owner can show just cause for such extension of time at the time the overall plan is approved.
(3) The local building official shall send second request notices as per 1008(b) to building owners who have made no response to the request at the end of six months and a third request notice to no response building owners at the end of nine months.
(4) If the building owner makes no response to any of the three requests for information on how the owner plans to comply with Section 1008 within 12 months from the first request, the building official shall issue a "written order" to the building owner to provide his building with the safety to life facilities as required by this section and to submit an overall plan specified by (1) above within six months with the five-year time period starting on the date of the "written order".
(5) For purposes of this section, the Construction Section of the Division of Health Service Regulation, Department of Health and Human Services, will notify all non-State owned I-Institutional buildings requiring licensure by the Division of Health Service Regulation and coordinate compliance requirements with the Department of Insurance and the local building official.
(c) Submission of Plans and Time Schedule for Completing Work. - Plans and specifications, but not necessarily working drawings covering the work necessary to bring the building into compliance with this section shall be submitted to the building official within a reasonable time. (See suggested time in NOTE of Section 1008(b) above). A time schedule for accomplishing the work, including the preparation of working drawings and specifications shall be included. Some of the work may require longer periods of time to accomplish than others, and this shall be reflected in the plan and schedule.
NOTE: Suggested Time Period For Compliance:
SUGGESTED TIME PERIOD FOR COMPLIANCE
CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III TIME FOR
ITEM (SECTION) (SECTION) (SECTION) COMPLETION
Signs in Elevator Lobbies
and Elevator Cabs 1008.2(h) 1008.3(h) 1008.4(h) 180 days
Emergency Evacuation Plan 1008(b) NOTE: 180 days
Corridor Smoke Detectors
door closers) 1008.2(c) 1008.3(c) 1008.4(c) 1 year
Manual Fire Alarm 1008.2(a) 1008.3(a) 1008.4(a) 1 year
System Required 1008.2(b) 1008.3(b) 1008.4(b) 2 years
Smoke Detectors Required 1008.2(c) 1008.3(c) 1008.4(c) 1 year
Protection and Fire Stopping
for Vertical Shafts 1008.2(f) 1008.3(f) 1008.4(f) 3 years
Special Exit Requirements-
Number, Location and
Illumination to be in
Section 1007 1008.2(e) 1008.3(e) 1008.4(e) 3 years
Power Supply 1008.2(d) 1008.3(d) 1008.4(d) 4 years
Special Exit Facilities
Required 1008.2(e) 1008.3(e) 1008.4(e) 5 years
Institutional Buildings 1008.2(f) 1008.3(f) 1008.4(f) 5 years
Requirements 1008.2(h) 1008.3(h) 1008.4(h) 5 years
Central Alarm Facility
Required 1008.3(i) 1008.4(i) 5 years
Areas of Refuge Required
on Every Eighth Floor 1008.4(j) 5 years
Smoke Venting 1008.4(k) 5 years
Fire Protection of
Electrical Conductors 1008.4(l) 5 years
Sprinkler System Required 1008.4(m) 5 years
(d) Building Official Notification of Department of Insurance. - The building official shall send copies of written notices he sends to building owners to the Engineering and Building Codes Division for their files and also shall file an annual report by August 15th of each year covering the past fiscal year setting forth the work accomplished under the provisions of this section.
(e) Construction Changes and Design of Life Safety Equipment. - Plans and specifications which contain construction changes and design of life safety equipment requirements to comply with provisions of this section shall be prepared by a registered architect in accordance with provisions of Chapter 83A of the General Statutes or by a registered engineer in accordance with provisions of Chapter 89C of the General Statutes or by both an architect and engineer particularly qualified by training and experience for the type of work involved. Such plans and specifications shall be submitted to the Engineering and Building Codes Division of the Department of Insurance for approval. Plans and specifications for I-Institutional buildings licensed by the Division of Health Service Regulation as noted in (b) above shall be submitted to the Construction Section of that Division for review and approval.
(f) Filing of Test Reports and Maintenance on Life Safety Equipment. - The engineer performing the design for the electrical and mechanical equipment, including sprinkler systems, must file the test results with the Engineering and Building Codes Division of the Department of Insurance, or to the agency designated by the Department of Insurance, that such systems have been tested to indicate that they function in accordance with the standards specified in this section and according to design criteria. These test results shall be a prerequisite for the Certificate of Compliance required by (b) above. Test results for I-Institutional shall be filed with the Construction Section, Division of Health Service Regulation. It shall be the duty and responsibility of the owners of Class I, II and III buildings to maintain smoke detection, fire detection, fire control, smoke removal and venting as required by this section and similar emergency systems in proper operating condition at all times. Certification of full tests and inspections of all emergency systems shall be provided by the owner annually to the fire department.
(g) Applicability of Chapter X and Conflicts with Other Sections. - The requirements of this section shall be in addition to those of Sections 1001 through 1007; and in case of conflict, the requirements affording the higher degree of safety to life shall apply, as determined by the building official.
(h) Classes of Buildings and Occupancy Classifications. - Buildings shall be classified as Class I, II or III according to Table 1008.1. In the case of mixed occupancies, for this purpose, the classification shall be the most restrictive one resulting from the application of the most prevalent occupancies to Table 1008.1.
FOOTNOTE: Emergency Plan. - Owners, operators, tenants, administrators or managers of high-rise buildings should consult with the fire authority having jurisdiction and establish procedures which shall include but not necessarily be limited to the following:
(1) Assignment of a responsible person to work with the fire authority in the establishment, implementation and maintenance of the emergency pre-fire plan.
(2) Emergency plan procedures shall be supplied to all tenants and shall be posted conspicuously in each hotel guest room, each office area, and each schoolroom.
(3) Submission to the local fire authority of an annual renewal or amended emergency plan.
(4) Plan should be completed as soon as possible.
1008.1 - ALL EXISTING BUILDINGS SHALL BE CLASSIFIED AS CLASS I, II AND III ACCORDING TO TABLE 1008.1.
CLASS OCCUPANCY ABOVE AVERAGE GRADE
GROUP (3)(4) EXCEEDING HEIGHT (2)
Group R-Residential 60' but less than
Group B-Business 120' above average
Group E-Educational grade or 6 but less
CLASS I Group A-Assembly than 12 stories above
Group H-Hazardous average grade.
Group I-Institutional-Unrestrained 36' but less than 60' above
average grade or 3 but less than
6 stories above average grade. Group R-Residential 120' but less than 250' above
Group B-Business average grade or 12 but less
Group E-Educational than 25 stories above average
CLASS II Group A-Assembly grade.
Group I-Institutional-Unrestrained 60' but less than 250' above
average grade or 6 but less than
25 stories above average grade. Group R-Residential 250' or 25 stories above average
Group B-Business grade.
CLASS III Group E-Educational
NOTE 1: The entire building shall comply with this section when the building has an occupied floor above the height specified, except that portions of the buildings which do not exceed the height specified are exempt from this section, subject to the following provisions:
(a) Low-rise portions of Class I buildings must be separated from high-rise portions by one-hour construction.
(b) Low-rise portions of Class II and III buildings must be separated from high-rise portions by two-hour construction.
(c) Any required exit from the high-rise portion which passes through the low-rise portions must be separated from the low-rise portion by the two-hour construction.
NOTE 2: The height described in Table 1008.1 shall be measured between the average grade outside the building and the finished floor of the top occupied story.
NOTE 3: Public parking decks meeting the requirements of Section 412.7 and less than 75 feet in height are exempt from the requirements of this section when there is no other occupancy above or below such deck.
NOTE 4: Special purpose equipment buildings, such as telephone equipment buildings housing the equipment only, with personnel occupant load limited to persons required to maintain the equipment may be exempt from any or all of these requirements at the discretion of the Engineering and Building Codes Division provided such special purpose equipment building is separated from other portions of the building by two-hour fire rated construction.
1008.2-REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING CLASS I BUILDINGS.
All Class I buildings shall be provided with the following:
(a) An approved manual fire alarm system, meeting the requirements of Section 1125 and applicable portions of NFPA 71, 72A, 72B, 72C or 72D, shall be provided unless the building is fully sprinklered or equipped with an approved automatic fire detection system connected to the fire department.
(b) All Class I buildings shall meet the requirements of Sections 1001-1007.
(c) Smoke Detectors Required. - At least one approved listed smoke detector tested in accordance with UL-167, capable of detecting visible and invisible particles of combustion shall be installed as follows:
(1) All buildings classified as institutional, residential and assembly occupancies shall be provided with listed smoke detectors in all required exit corridors spaced no further than 60' on center or more than 15' from any wall. Exterior corridors open to the outside are not required to comply with this requirement. If the corridor walls have one-hour fire resistance rating with all openings protected with 1-3/4 inch solid wood core or hollow metal door or equivalent and all corridor doors are equipped with approved self-closing devices, the smoke detectors in the corridor may be omitted. Detectors in corridors may be omitted when each dwelling unit is equipped with smoke detectors which activate the alarm system.
(2) In every mechanical equipment, boiler, electrical equipment, elevator equipment or similar room unless the room is sprinklered or the room is separated from other areas by two-hour fire resistance construction with all openings therein protected with approved fire dampers and Class B fire doors. (Approved listed fire (heat) detectors may be submitted for these rooms.)
(3) In the return air portion of every air conditioning and mechanical ventilation system that serves more than one floor.
(4) The activation of any detector shall activate the alarm system, and shall cause such other operations as required by this Code.
(5) The annunciator shall be located near the main entrance or in a central alarm and control facility.
NOTE 1: Limited area sprinklers may be supplied from the domestic water system provided the domestic water system is designed to support the design flow of the largest number of sprinklers in any one of the enclosed areas. When supplied by the domestic water system, the maximum number of sprinklers in any one enclosed room or area shall not exceed 20 sprinklers which must totally protect the room or area.
(d) Emergency Electrical Power Supply. - An emergency electrical power supply shall be provided to supply the following for a period of not less than two hours. An emergency electrical power supply may consist of generators, batteries, a minimum of two remote connections to the public utility grid supplied by multiple generating stations, a combination of the above.
(1) Emergency, exit and elevator cab lighting.
(2) Emergency illumination for corridors, stairs, etc.
(3) Emergency Alarms and Detection Systems. - Power supply for fire alarm and fire detection. Emergency power does not need to be connected to fire alarm or detection systems when they are equipped with their own emergency power supply from float or trickle charge battery in accordance with NFPA standards.
(e) Special Exit Requirements. - Exits and exitways shall meet the following requirements:
(1) Protection of Stairways Required. - All required exit stairways shall be enclosed with noncombustible one-hour fire rated construction with a minimum of 1¾ inch solid core wood door or hollow metal door or 20 minute UL listed doors as entrance thereto. (See Section 1007.5).
(2) Number and Location of Exits. - All required exit stairways shall meet the requirements of Section 1007 to provide for proper number and location and proper fire rated enclosures and illumination of and designation for means of egress.
(3) Exit Outlets. - Each required exit stair shall exit directly outside or through a separate one-hour fire rated corridor with no openings except the necessary openings to exit into the fire rated corridor and from the fire rated corridor and such openings shall be protected with 1¾ inch solid wood core or hollow metal door or equivalent unless the exit floor level and all floors below are equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system meeting the requirements of NFPA No. 13.
(f) Smoke Compartments Required for I-Institutional Buildings. - Each occupied floor shall be divided into at least two compartments with each compartment containing not more than 30 institutional occupants. Such compartments shall be subdivided with one-half hour fire rated partitions which shall extend from outside wall to outside wall and from floor to and through any concealed space to the floor slab or roof above and meet the following requirements:
(1) Maximum area of any smoke compartment shall be not more than 22,500 square feet in area with both length and width limited to 150 feet.
(2) At least one smoke partition per floor regardless of building size forming two smoke zones of approximately equal size.
(3) All doors located in smoke partitions shall be properly gasketed to insure a substantial barrier to the passage of smoke and gases.
(4) All doors located in smoke partitions shall be no less than 1¾ inch thick solid core wood doors with UL, ¼ inch wire glass panel in metal frames. This glass panel shall be a minimum of 100 square inches and a maximum of 720 square inches.
(5) Every door located in a smoke partition shall be equipped with an automatic closer. Doors that are normally held in the open position shall be equipped with an electrical device that shall, upon actuation of the fire alarm or smoke detection system in an adjacent zone, close the doors in that smoke partition.
(6) Glass in all corridor walls shall be ¼", UL approved, wire glass in metal frames in pieces not to exceed 1296 square inches.
(7) Doors to all patient rooms and treatment areas shall be a minimum of 1¾ inch solid core wood doors except in fully sprinklered buildings.
(g) Protection and Fire Stopping for Vertical Shafts. - All vertical shafts extending more than one floor including elevator shafts, plumbing shafts, electrical shafts and other vertical openings shall be protected with noncombustible one-hour fire rated construction with shaft wall openings protected with 1¾ inch solid core wood door or hollow metal door. Vertical shafts (such as electrical wiring shafts) which have openings such as ventilated doors on each floor must be fire stopped at the floor slab level with noncombustible materials having a fire resistance rating not less than one hour to provide an effective barrier to the passage of smoke, heat and gases from floor to floor through such shafts.
EXCEPTION: Shaft wall openings protected in accordance with NFPA No. 90A and openings connected to metal ducts equipped with approved fire dampers within the shaft wall openings do not need any additional protection.
(h) Signs in Elevator Lobbies and Elevator Cabs. - Each elevator lobby call station on each floor shall have an emergency sign located adjacent to the call button and each elevator cab shall have an emergency sign located adjacent to the floor status indicator. The required emergency sign shall be readable at all times and shall be a minimum of 1/2" high block letters with the words: "IN CASE OF FIRE DO NOT USE ELEVATOR - USE THE EXIT STAIRS" or other words to this effect.
1008.3 - REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING CLASS II BUILDINGS.
All Class II buildings must meet the following requirements:
(a) Manual Fire Alarm. - Provide manual fire alarm system in accordance with Section 1008.2(a). In addition, buildings so equipped with sprinkler alarm system or automatic fire detection system must have at least one manual fire alarm station near an exit on each floor as a part of such sprinkler or automatic fire detection and alarm system. Such manual fire alarm systems shall report a fire by floor.
(b) Voice Communication System Required. - An approved voice communication system or systems operated from the central alarm and control facilities shall be provided and shall consist of the following:
(1) One-Way Voice Communication Public Address System Required. - A one-way voice communication system shall be established on a selective basis which can be heard clearly by all occupants in all exit stairways, elevators, elevator lobbies, corridors, assembly rooms and tenant spaces.
NOTE 1: This system shall function so that in the event of one circuit or speaker being damaged or out of service, the remainder of the system shall continue to be operable.
NOTE 2: This system shall include provisions for silencing the fire alarm devices when the loud speakers are in use, but only after the fire alarm devices have operated initially for not less than 15 seconds.
(c) Smoke Detectors Required. - Smoke detectors are required as per Section 1008.2(c). The following are additional requirements:
(1) Storage rooms larger than 24 square feet or having a maximum dimension of over eight feet shall be provided with approved fire detectors or smoke detectors installed in an approved manner unless the room is sprinklered.
(2) The actuation of any detectors shall activate the fire alarm system.
(d) Emergency Electrical Power Supply. - An emergency electrical power supply shall be provided to supply the following for a period of not less than two hours. An emergency electrical power supply may consist of generators, batteries, a minimum of two remote connections to the public utility grid supplied by multiple generating stations, a combination of the above. Power supply shall furnish power for items listed in Section 1008.2(d) and the following:
(1) Pressurization Fans. - Fans to provide required pressurization, smoke venting or smoke control for stairways.
(2) Elevators. - The designated emergency elevator.
(e) Special Exit Facilities Required. - The following exit facilities are required:
(1) The special exit facilities required in 1008.2(e) are required. All required exit stairways shall be enclosed with noncombustible two-hour fire rated construction with a minimum of 1 1/2 hour Class B-labeled doors as entrance thereto: (See Section 1007.5).
(2) Smoke-Free Stairways Required. - At least one stairway shall be a smoke free stairway in accordance with Section 1104.2 or at least one stairway shall be pressurized to between 0.15 inch and 0.35 inch water column pressure with all doors closed. Smoke-free stairs and pressurized stairs shall be identified with signs containing letters a minimum of 1/2 inch high containing the words "PRIMARY EXIT STAIRS" unless all stairs are smoke free or pressurized. Approved exterior stairways meeting the requirements of Chapter XI or approved existing fire escapes meeting the requirements of Chapter X with all openings within 10 feet protected with wire glass or other properly designed stairs protected to assure similar smoke-free vertical egress may be permitted. All required exit stairways shall also meet the requirements of Section 1008.2(e).
(3) If stairway doors are locked from the stairway side, keys shall be provided to unlock all stairway doors on every eighth floor leading into the remainder of the building and the key shall be located in a glass enclosure adjacent to the door at each floor level (which may sound an alarm when the glass is broken). When the key unlocks the door, the hardware shall be of the type that remains unlocked after the key is removed. Other means, approved by the building official may be approved to enable occupants and fire fighters to readily unlock stairway doors on every eighth floor that may be locked from the stairwell side. The requirements of this section may be eliminated in smoke-free stairs and pressurized stairs provided fire department access keys are provided in locations acceptable to the local fire authority.
(f) Compartmentation for I-Institutional Buildings Required. - See Section 1008.2(f).
(g) Protection and Fire Stopping for Vertical Shafts. - All vertical shafts extending more than one floor including elevator shafts, plumbing shafts, electrical shafts and other vertical openings shall be protected with noncombustible two-hour fire rated construction with Class B-labeled door except for elevator doors which shall be hollow metal or equivalent. All vertical shafts which are not so enclosed must be fire stopped at each floor slab with noncombustible materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than two hours to provide an effective barrier to the passage of smoke, heat and gases from floor to floor through such shaft.
EXCEPTION: Shaft wall openings protected in accordance with NFPA No. 90A and openings connected to metal ducts equipped with approved fire dampers within the shaft wall opening do not need any additional protection.
(h) Emergency Elevator Requirements.
(1) Elevator Recall. - Each elevator shall be provided with an approved manual return. When actuated, all cars taking a minimum of one car at a time, in each group of elevators having common lobby, shall return directly at normal car speed to the main floor lobby, or to a smoke-free lobby leading most directly to the outside. Cars that are out of service are exempt from this requirement. The manual return shall be located at the main floor lobby.
NOTE: Manually operated cars are considered to be in compliance with this provision if each car is equipped with an audible or visual alarm to signal the operator to return to the designated level.
(2) Identification of Emergency Elevator. - At least one elevator shall be identified as the emergency elevator and shall serve all floor levels. NOTE: This elevator will have a manual control in the cab which will override all other controls including floor call buttons and door controls.
(3) Signs in Elevator Lobbies and Elevator Cabs. - Each elevator lobby call station on each floor shall have an emergency sign located adjacent to the call button and each elevator cab shall have an emergency sign located adjacent to the floor status indicator. These required emergency signs shall be readable at all times and shall be a minimum of 1/2 inch high block letters with the words: "IN CASE OF FIRE DO NOT USE ELEVATOR - USE THE EXIT STAIRS" or other words to this effect.
(i) Central Alarm Facility Required. - A central alarm facility accessible at all times to fire department personnel or attended 24 hours a day, shall be provided and shall contain the following:
(1) Facilities to automatically transmit manual and automatic alarm signals to the fire department either directly or through a signal monitoring service.
(2) Public service telephone.
(3) Fire detection and alarm systems annunciator panels to indicate the type of signal and the floor or zone from which the fire alarm is received. These signals shall be both audible and visual with a silence switch for the audible.
NOTE: Detectors in HVAC systems used for fan shut down need not be annunciated.
(4) Master keys for access from all stairways to all floors.
(5) One-way voice emergency communications system controls.
1008.4 - REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING CLASS III BUILDINGS.
All Class III Buildings shall be provided with the following:
(a) Manual Fire Alarm System. - A manual fire alarm system meeting the requirements of Section 1008.3(a).
(b) Voice Communication System Required. - An approved voice communication system or systems operated from the central alarm and control facilities shall be provided and shall consist of the following:
(1) One-Way Voice Communication Public Address System Required. - A one-way voice communication system shall be established on a selective or general basis which can be heard clearly by all occupants in all elevators, elevator lobbies, corridors, and rooms or tenant spaces exceeding 1,000 sq. ft. in area.
NOTE 1: This system shall be designed so that in the event of one circuit or speaker being damaged or out of service the remainder of the system shall continue to be operable.
NOTE 2: This system shall include provisions for silencing the fire alarm devices when the loud speakers are in use, but only after the fire alarm devices have operated initially for not less than 15 seconds.
(2) Two-way system for use by both fire fighters and occupants at every fifth level in stairways and in all elevators.
(3) Within the stairs at levels not equipped with two-way voice communications, signs indicating the location of the nearest two-way device shall be provided.
NOTE: The one-way and two-way voice communication systems may be combined.
(c) Smoke Detectors Required. - Approved listed smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 1008.3(c) and in addition, such detectors shall terminate at the central alarm and control facility and be so designed that it will indicate the fire floor or the zone on the fire floor.
(d) Emergency Electrical Power Supply. - Emergency electrical power supply meeting the requirements of Section 1008.3(d) to supply all emergency equipment required by Section 1008.3(d) shall be provided and in addition, provisions shall be made for automatic transfer to emergency power in not more than ten seconds for emergency illumination, emergency lighting and emergency communication systems. Provisions shall be provided to transfer power to a second designated elevator located in a separate shaft from the primary emergency elevator. Any standpipe or sprinkler system serving occupied floor areas 400 feet or more above grade shall be provided with on-site generated power or diesel driven pump.
(e) Special Exit Requirements. - All exits and exitways shall meet the requirements of Section 1008.3(e).
(f) Compartmentation of Institutional Buildings Required. - See Section 1008.2(f).
(g) Protection and Fire Stopping for Vertical Shafts. - Same as Class II buildings. See Section 1008.3(g).
(h) Emergency Elevator Requirements.
(1) Primary Emergency Elevator. - At least one elevator serving all floors shall be identified as the emergency elevator with identification signs both outside and inside the elevator and shall be provided with emergency power to meet the requirements of Section 1008.3(c).
NOTE: This elevator will have a manual control in the cab which will override all other controls including floor call buttons and door controls.
(2) Elevator Recall. - Each elevator shall be provided with an approved manual return. When actuated, all cars taking a minimum of one car at a time, in each group of elevators having common lobby, shall return directly at normal car speed to the main floor lobby or to a smoke-free lobby leading most directly to the outside. Cars that are out of service are exempt from this requirement. The manual return shall be located at the main floor lobby.
NOTE: Manually operated cars are considered to be in compliance with this provision if each car is equipped with an audible or visual alarm to signal the operator to return to the designated level.
(3) Signs in Elevator Lobbies and Elevator Cabs. - Each elevator lobby call station on each floor shall have an emergency sign located adjacent to the call button and each elevator cab shall have an emergency sign located adjacent to the floor status indicator. These required emergency signs shall be readable at all times and have a minimum of ½" high block letters with the words: "IN CASE OF FIRE, UNLESS OTHERWISE INSTRUCTED, DO NOT USE THE ELEVATOR - USE THE EXIT STAIRS" or other words to this effect.
(4) Machine Room Protection. - When elevator equipment located above the hoistway is subject to damage from smoke particulate matter, cable slots entering the machine room shall be sleeved beneath the machine room floor to inhibit the passage of smoke into the machine room.
(5) Secondary Emergency Elevator. - At least one elevator located in separate shaft from the Primary Emergency Elevator shall be identified as the "Secondary Emergency Elevator" with identification signs both outside and inside the elevator. It will serve all occupied floors above 250 feet and shall have all the same facilities as the primary elevator and will be capable of being transferred to the emergency power system.
NOTE: Emergency power supply can be sized for nonsimultaneous use of the primary and secondary emergency elevators.
(i) Central Alarm and Control Facilities Required.
(1) A central alarm facility accessible at all times to Fire Department personnel or attended 24 hours a day, shall be provided. The facility shall be located on a completely sprinklered floor or shall be enclosed in two-hour fire resistive construction. Openings are permitted if protected by listed 1½ hour Class B-labeled closures or water curtain devices capable of a minimum discharge of three gpm per lineal foot of opening. The facility shall contain the following:
(i) Facilities to automatically transmit manual and automatic alarm signals to the fire department either directly or through a signal monitoring service.
(ii) Public service telephone.
(iii) Direct communication to the control facility.
(iv) Controls for the voice communication systems.
(v) Fire detection and alarm system annunciator panels to indicate the type of signal and the floor or zone from which the fire alarm is received, those signals, shall be both audible and visual with a silence switch for the audible.
NOTE: Detectors in HVAC systems used for fan shut down need not be annunciated.
(2) A control facility (fire department command station) shall be provided at or near the fire department response point and shall contain the following:
(i) Elevator status indicator.
NOTE: Not required in buildings where there is a status indicator at the main elevator lobby.
(ii) Master keys for access from all stairways to all floors.
(iii) Controls for the two-way communication system.
(iv) Fire detection and alarm system annunciator panels to indicate the type of signal and the floor or zone from which the fire alarm is received.
(v) Direct communication to the central alarm facility.
(3) The central alarm and control facilities may be combined in a single approved location. If combined, the duplication of facilities and the direct communication system between the two may be deleted.
(j) Areas of Refuge Required. - Class III buildings shall be provided with a designated "area of refuge" at the 250 ft. level and on at least every eighth floor or fraction thereof above that level to be designed so that occupants above the 250 ft. level can enter at all times and be safely accommodated in floor areas meeting the following requirements unless the building is completely sprinklered:
(1) Identification and Size. - These areas of refuge shall be identified on the plans and in the building as necessary. The area of refuge shall provide not less than 3 sq. ft. per occupant for the total number of occupants served by the area based on the occupancy content calculated by Section 1105. A minimum of two percent (2%) of the number of occupants on each floor shall be assumed to be handicapped and no less than 16 sq. ft. per handicapped occupant shall be provided. Smoke proof stairways meeting the requirements of Section 1104.2 and pressurized stairways meeting the requirements of Section 1108.3(e)(2) may be used for ambulatory occupants at the rate of 3 sq. ft. of area of treads and landings per person, but in no case shall the stairs count for more than one-third of the total occupants. Doors leading to designated areas of refuge from stairways or other areas of the building shall not have locking hardware or shall be automatically unlocked upon receipt of any manual or automatic fire alarm signal.
(2) Pressurized. - The area of refuge shall be pressurized with 100% fresh air utilizing the maximum capacity of existing mechanical building air conditioning system without recirculation from other areas or other acceptable means of providing fresh air into the area.
(3) Fire Resistive Separation. - Walls, partitions, floor assemblies and roof assemblies separating the area of refuge from the remainder of the building shall be noncombustible and have a fire resistance rating of not less than one hour. Duct penetrations shall be protected as required for penetrations of shafts. Metallic piping and metallic conduit may penetrate or pass through the separation only if the openings around the piping or conduit are sealed on each side of the penetrations with impervious noncombustible materials to prevent the transfer of smoke or combustion gases from one side of the separation to the other. The fire door serving as a horizontal exit between compartments shall be so installed, fitted and gasketed to provide a barrier to the passage of smoke.
(4) Access Corridors. - Any corridor leading to each designated area of refuge shall be protected as required by Sections 1104 and 702. The capacity of an access corridor leading to an area of refuge shall be based on 150 persons per unit width as defined in Section 1105.2. An access corridor may not be less than 44 inches in width. The width shall be determined by the occupant content of the most densely populated floor served. Corridors with one-hour fire resistive separation may be utilized for area of refuge at the rate of three sq. ft. per ambulatory occupant provided a minimum of one cubic ft. per minute of outside air per square foot of floor area is introduced by the air conditioning system.
(5) Penetrations. - The continuity of the fire resistance at the juncture of exterior walls and floors must be maintained.
(k) Smoke Venting. - Smoke venting shall be accomplished by one of the following methods in nonsprinklered buildings:
(1) In a nonsprinklered building, the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system shall be arranged to exhaust the floor of alarm origin at its maximum exhausting capacity without recirculating air from the floor of alarm origin to any other floor. The system may be arranged to accomplish this either automatically or manually. If the air conditioning system is also used to pressurize the areas of refuge, this function shall not be compromised by using the system for smoke removal.
(2) Venting facilities shall be provided at the rate of 20 square feet per 100 lineal feet or 10 square feet per 50 lineal feet of exterior wall in each story and distributed around the perimeter at not more than 50 or 100 foot intervals openable from within the fire floor. Such panels and their controls shall be clearly identified.
(3) Any combination of the above two methods or other approved designs which will produce equivalent results and which is acceptable to the building official.
(l) Fire Protection of Electrical Conductors. - New electrical conductors furnishing power for pressurization fans for stairways, power for emergency elevators and fire pumps required by Section 1008.4(d) shall be protected by a two-hour fire rated horizontal or vertical enclosure or structural element which does not contain any combustible materials. Such protection shall begin at the source of the electrical power and extend to the floor level on which the emergency equipment is located. It shall also extend to the emergency equipment to the extent that the construction of the building components on that floor permits. New electrical conductors in metal raceways located within a two-hour fire rated assembly without any combustible therein are exempt from this requirement.
(m) Automatic Sprinkler Systems Required.
(1) All areas which are classified as Group M-mercantile and Group H-hazardous shall be completely protected with an automatic sprinkler system.
(2) All areas used for commercial or institutional food preparation and storage facilities adjacent thereto shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
(3) An area used for storage or handling of hazardous substances shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
(4) All laboratories and vocational shops in Group E, Educational shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
(5) Sprinkler systems shall be in strict accordance with NFPA No. 13 and the following requirements:
The sprinkler system must be equipped with a water flow and supervisory signal system that will transmit automatically a water flow signal directly to the fire department or to an independent signal monitoring service satisfactory to the fire department.
(j) Subsection (i) of this section does not apply to business occupancy buildings as defined in the North Carolina State Building Code except that evacuation plans as required on page 8, lines 2 through 16 [Section 1008, footnote following subsection (h)], and smoke detectors as required for Class I Buildings as required by Section 1008.2, page 11, lines 5 through 21 [Section 1008.2, subdivision (c)(1)]; Class II Buildings as required by Section 1008.3, page 17, lines 17 through 28 and page 18, lines 1 through 10 [Section 1008.3, subsections (c) and (d)]; and Class III Buildings, as required by Section 1008.4, lines 21 through 25 [Section 1008.4, subsection (c)] shall not be exempted from operation of this act as applied to business occupancy buildings, except that the Council shall adopt rules that allow a business occupancy building built prior to 1953 to have a single exit to remain if the building complies with the Building Code on or before December 31, 2006.
(j1) A nonbusiness occupancy building built prior to the adoption of the 1953 Building Code that is not in compliance with Section 402.1.3.5 of Volume IX of the Building Code or Section 3407.2.2 of Volume I of the Building Code must comply with the applicable sections by December 31, 2006.
(j2) Pursuant to Article 9G of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes, the Building Code Council is authorized to review and endorse proposals for the construction of tall buildings or structures in areas surrounding major military installations, as those terms are defined in G.S. 143-151.71.
(k) For purposes of use in the Code, the term "Family Care Home" shall mean an adult care home having two to six residents.
(l) When any question arises as to any provision of the Code, judicial notice shall be taken of that provision of the Code. (1957, c. 1138; 1969, c. 567; c. 1229, ss. 2-6; 1971, c. 1100, ss. 1, 2; 1973, c. 476, ss. 84, 128, 138, 152; c. 507, s. 5; 1981, c. 677, s. 3; c. 713, ss. 1, 2; 1981 (Reg. Sess., 1982), c. 1282, s. 20.2D; c. 1348, s. 1; 1983, c. 614, s. 3; 1985, c. 576, s. 1; c. 622, s. 2; c. 666, s. 39; 1989, c. 25, s. 2; c. 681, ss. 2, 3, 9, 10, 18, 19; c. 727, ss. 157, 158; 1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 895, s. 1; 1993, c. 329, ss. 1, 3; c. 539, s. 1009; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 1995, c. 111, s. 1; c. 242, s. 1; c. 507, s. 27.8(r); c. 535, s. 30; 1997-26, ss. 1-3, 5; 1997-443, ss. 11A.93, 11A.94, 11A.118(a), 11A.119(a); 1998-57, s. 2; 1998-172, s. 1; 1998-202, s. 4(u); 1999-456, s. 40; 2000-137, s. 4(x); 2000-140, s. 93.1(a); 2001-141, ss. 1, 2, 3, 4; 2001-421, ss. 1.1, 1.2, 1.5; 2001-424, s. 12.2(b); 2002-144, s. 5; 2003-221, s. 6; 2003-284, s. 22.2; 2004-124, ss. 21.1, 21.2; 2005-205, s. 6; 2007-182, ss. 1, 2; 2007-529, s. 1; 2007-542, s. 1; 2008-176, s. 2; 2008-219, s. 1; 2009-79, s. 1(a)-(c); 2009-243, s. 1; 2009-532, s. 1; 2009-570, s. 18; 2010-97, s. 6(b); 2011-145, s. 19.1(mm); 2011-364, s. 1; 2012-34, s. 1; 2012-187, s. 16.1; 2013-75, s. 1; 2013-118, ss. 2, 3; 2013-206, s. 2; 2013-265, s. 18; 2013-413, ss. 19(a), 41.)